However the true number - both of cases and deaths - is likely higher as Latin America's top economy has been slow to ramp up testing.
This makes Brazil the third country with the highest coronavirus cases globally behind the United States and Russian Federation.
Brazil's death toll is now the sixth-highest in the world, behind the United States, Britain, Italy, Spain and France.
But nearly all of the country's 27 states are under some sort of lockdown order, though Brazilians are wearying of the restrictions in place since the end of March.
But Bolsonaro and the governors sounded a conciliatory note Thursday as they held a video conference on coordinating the response to the pandemic.
The petition, signed by 146 individuals and corporations, including former presidents Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff of the Workers' Party (PT), claims the Brazilian president is disrupting the efforts to contain the pandemic as well as the democracy in the country.
Brazil also passed 20 000 deaths on Thursday and has 310 087 confirmed cases, up over 18 500 in a single day, according to Health Ministry data.
São Paulo Governor João Doria - who has previously described the president's views on tackling the disease as "Bolsonarovirus" - called for unity.
Mr Bolsonaro has compared the virus to "a little flu" and promoted the use of the unproven drug chloroquine, despite warnings that it may be unsafe.
Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro said Tuesday that the Ministry of Health would issue new guidelines to expand the use of the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19, although the drug has yet to be recognized as an effective remedy.
He has gone through two health ministers since the pandemic began, and the crucial ministry is now in the hands of an interim, army general Eduardo Pazuello.
Trump told reporters on Tuesday that he is considering enacting a travel ban on Brazil.
No sooner was Teich out the door than Bolsonaro's government recommended Wednesday that all COVID-19 patients receive one of the drugs as soon as they show symptoms.
Chloroquine was already being used in Brazil for COVID-19 patients who are hospitalized in serious condition.
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That work, also looking at the possible role of intermediate hosts, should include "scientific and collaborative field missions". Early on day one, member states unanimously chose to kick the can down the road on whether to grant Taiwan observer status.
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