Pandya's first ball drew an edge from Root, which was very well taken at second slip by Rahul.
At stumps on day two, India were well placed at 124 for two in 31 overs in their second innings with Cheteshwar Pujara batting on 33 and skipper Virat Kohli unbeaten on 8.
The "soft signal" had been out and replays suggested that the ball bounced only after Rahul had got his fingers underneath it. Root was rightly declared out, but he walked off shaking his head while boos rang out.
It all started with Ishant Sharma early, who hadn't bowled in the morning session at all.
It was an important one, too, with England captain Joe Root possibly attracting the attention of match referee Jeff Crowe for angrily swishing his bat and shaking his head when Rahul's effort was adjudged to be clean.
Pandya believed he had Ben Stokes lbw on 10, and Kohli called for a review. The standout shot in Kohli's innings would certainly be the bowler's back drive off Chris Woakes (3/75 in 20 overs) while Rahane also hit the bowler through the covers in the same over. The tension was ratcheted up, and India sensed another opening was not far off. Cheteshwar Pujara might had done nothing wrong in that case, Woakes applied through the perfection leading to a more ideal catch of Adil Rashid standing at deep backward. Jos Buttler threw his bat around late on, scoring a 32-ball-39 to eat into the lead.
This was a triumph, too, for a young keeper-batsman of enormous promise in Rishabh Pant who followed his audacious debut innings featuring a six off his second ball by taking five catches in his weaker suit with the gloves. That gave him five catches, a new record for an Indian wicketkeeper on debut.
4 - After just five innings as captain, Kohli is already in fourth place on the list of most Test runs by an Indian captain in England. The look on his face as he held the ball up to the Trent Bridge crowd was priceless.
After tea, opening duo of Shikhar Dhawan (44) and KL Rahul (36) looked to build on India's advantage by making another cautious start. This was Dhawan's highest score in a Test outside of Asia since July 2016, and he had only himself to blame for throwing away an easy fifty when he charged at Rashid and was stumped. Mohammad Azharuddin had scored 1517 runs in 27 Tests while Rahul Dravid is fifth with 1219 runs.
It was here in Nottingham that South Africa thumped England previous year to burst the bubble of optimism hanging over Joe Root's new Test reign and now they have been utterly outplayed by India in conditions they should relish.
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