Scientists trace the origin of high-energy cosmic radiation

Artist's impression of the active galactic nucleus shows the supermassive black hole at the center of the accretion disk sending a narrow high-energy jet of matter into space perpendicular to the disc in this image by Science Communication Lab in Ki

Today, among scholars there is no consensus about their origin - some astronomers believe that these particles are accelerated in the hot remains of the exploded stars in the milky Way, while others assume that they are the source of the kernel and the gas clouds in distant galaxies.

Researchers said they have detected high-energy neutrinos that were emitted from a super-massive black hole in a distant galaxy and traveled for 4 billion light years before hitting ice near the South Pole.

Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) observed a large gamma ray emission from that region just when the neutrino arrived. These kinds of nuclear reactions are also known to produce cosmic rays, most of which originate from outside our solar system and are deflected by Earth's magnetic field.

The leading suspects have always been quasars. This particular blazar, known as TXS 0506, was at a long-term peak of activity at that time.

It's akin to when Galileo first turned a telescope on the heavens.

For the first time, astronomers have detected a source of high-energy cosmic neutrinos, one of the fundamental particles that makes up the universe. By virtue of its location, KM3NeT will complement IceCube by having a clear (below the horizon) view of the center of our galaxy.

The IceCube Laboratory at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, in Antarctica, is run by the University of Wisconsin-Madison and funded by the National Science Foundation.

"Neutrinos provide us with a new window with which to view the universe", said University of Alberta physicist Darren Grant, spokesman for the IceCube scientific collaboration. "How much we are just starting to scratch the surface is the big question we are grappling with now", said Blaufuss. The elusive and eerie particle they found was traced back to one of the most significant objects in existence. Neutrinos have zero charge, zero radius, and very possibly zero mass.

Yet in theory they are all over.

Not all neutrinos are the high-energy variety. But they are incredibly harder to detect. The particle was a neutrino, electrically neutral and nearly massless, whose path could be traced directly back to the violent cosmic events that created it. Neutrinos go as straight through the universe as Einsteinian gravity will allow.

The event, which took place on 22 September 2017, was captured by the IceCube experiment, a cubic kilometre of clear ice kitted out with sensors to detect such intergalactic incidents.

Not only that, but as neutrinos travel practically unhindered through the vastness of space (unlike other particles, neutrinos only interact via the weak nuclear force) they have the potential to map the sky like astronomers now do with light at differing wavelengths, but at higher energies.

According to the experts, this recently found alien neutrino has come from a supermassive black hole, located near about 3.7 billion light-years away. One reason, he said, was that the scientists had assumed the sources would be nearby, perhaps even in our own Milky Way galaxy. Which is one of the most powerful objects in existence?

Beginning in the late 19th century, astronomers began observing invisible wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, bands on the electromagnetic spectrum that are determined by the amount of energy their photons carry. Which means it had been produced by a proton that had been a booster to that energy, almost 50 times the energy delivered by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the biggest particle accelerator on Earth.



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