Sir Mo Farah couldn't follow up his 10,000m efforts after he was tested by Ethiopia's Muktar Edris.
In what was his last major track appearance before retirement later this month, the 34-year-old finished with a time of 13 minutes 33.22 seconds - almost one second behind gold-winner Muktar Edris of Ethiopia.
Though Bolt arrived at the championships, Farah has already seen victory in the 10,000m, lauded by some as the greatest of his career.
Approaching the final bend, Farah found himself stuck behind by the Ethiopian and his compatriot Yomif Kejelcha, with Chelimo also in contention.
The 27-year-old clocked 13 minute 35.69 second, almost one second better than his earlier personal best of 13:36.62, in the first round heat number one but he ended up at the 15th spot in a top class field, which included defending champion Mo Farah of Great Britain, to bow out of the championships.
Farah sat near the front of the group from the start, while Paul Chelimo pushed a hellish pace in the opening laps.
"To be honest with you it takes so much out of me". It's not an excuse, but it took a lot more out of me than I realised.
Yet even in defeat, Farah demonstrated his champion's spirit as he fought back in the dying metres when it looked as if he would be shut out of the medals completely.
The British runner, 34, added a silver to the gold he won in the 10,000 metres at the London Stadium last week.
"It was close but not close enough but when I reflect I've got to be happy with that in my first-ever high jump final", she said. He won the 5,000 and 10,000 meters double at the 2012 and 2016 Olympics, as well as the 2013 and 2015 World Championships.
Preview: Usain Bolt, the superstar who made athletics fun and watchable for the past decade returns to the track for the final time Saturday to run on Jamaica's 4x100-meter relay team.
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