The move follows a spike in tensions between Tehran and Washington since US President Donald Trump took office in January with a vow to get tough on the Islamic republic.
The measure would allocate about $260 million each to Iran's ballistic-missile program and the Quds Force, the external branch of the IRGC that is said to be active in Syria and Iraq.
A total of 240 parliamentarians out of 244 present voted for the bill.
"The world may be stable only on the basis of equal rights of the countries", he continued, but this does not exempt countries from their obligations for the global community.
Iran's lawmakers have overwhelmingly approved a motion in response to recent USA sanctions, voting to boost spending on Tehran's missile program and the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC). In response to this, Iran complained to the UN Security Council about the USA sanctions and accused Washington of breaching the nuclear deal.
Iran maintains that the missiles that it tests don't violate its 2015 nuclear agreement with world powers because they are for defensive purposes.
Tehran says it does not design such missiles.
Iran's National Security and Foreign Policy Committee spokesman Seyed Hossein Naghavi Hosseini, while defending the bill, said the bill does not include any measure that would undermine JCPOA in any way; "Iran will never be the first to kill the nuclear deal and take responsibility for its costs", he added.
The plan would require Iran's government and armed forces to draw up a strategy to counter USA violations of human rights around the world, and to support Iranian bodies and individuals affected by U.S. sanctions.
Government representative Abbas Araqchi was also present in the Majlis session.
The bill tasks Foreign, Intelligence, and Defense Ministries, Iran's Army, and its Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC), and its Quds Force to produce a comprehensive strategy aimed at countering USA threats.